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直升机教员手册 Helicopter Instructor’s Handbook

时间:2014-11-10 08:35来源:FAA 作者:直升机翻译 点击:

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U.S. Department of Transportation
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Flight Standards Service ii
The Helicopter Instructor’s Handbook is designed as a technical manual for applicants who are preparing for their flight instructor pilot certificate with a helicopter class rating. This handbook contains detailed coverage of aerodynamics, flight controls, systems, performance, flight maneuvers, emergencies, and aeronautical decision-making. Topics such as weather, navigation, radio navigation and communications, use of flight information publications, and regulations are available in other Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) publications.
This handbook conforms to flight instructor pilot training and certification concepts established by the FAA. There are different ways of teaching, as well as performing flight procedures and maneuvers, and many variations in the explanations of aerodynamic theories and principles. Occasionally the word “must” or similar language is used where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
This handbook is available for download, in PDF format, from www.faa.gov.
This handbook is published by the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125.
Comments regarding this publication should be sent, in email form, to the following address:
[email protected]
The Helicopter Instructor’s Handbook was produced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with the assistance of Safety Research Corporation of America (SRCA). The FAA wishes to acknowledge the following contributors:
NZ Civil Aviation Authority for image of safety procedures for approaching a helicopter (Chapter 1)
David Park (www.freedigitalphotos.net) for image used in Chapter 2
Paul Whetstone (www.meyersaircraft.com) for image used in Chapter 5
Burkhard Domke (www.b-domke.de) for images used in Chapter 5
Bishop Equipment Mfg. Inc (www.bishopequipment.com) for image used in Chapter 6
Terry Simpkins of FLYIT Simulators (www.flyit.com) for image used in Chapter 13
Additional appreciation is extended to W.A. (Dub) Blessing, HAI Outstanding CFI award 1985; Donovan L. Harvey (1928 to 2000), HAI Outstanding CFI award 1987; Neil Jones, CFI; Chin Tu, CFI; the Helicopter Association International (HAI), Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), and the AOPA Air Safety Foundation for their technical support and input.
Prefaceiii
Acknowledgmentsv
Table of Contents .vii
Chapter 1 Introduction to Flight Training
Purpose of Flight Training
Practical Flight Instructor Strategies
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Role
FAA Reference Material
Role of the Examiner
Role of the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI)
Flight Safety Practices
Helicopter Hazards
Instructional Hazards
Collision Avoidance
See and Avoid
Positive Exchange of Flight Controls
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
Risk Management
Chapter Summary
Chapter 2 Introduction to the Helicopter
Introduction
Training Procedures
Introduction to the Helicopter
Introduction to Flying
Instructor Tips
Chapter Summary
Chapter 3 Aerodynamics of Flight
Introduction
Forces Acting on the Aircraft
Lift
Bernoulli’s Principle
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Thrust
Drag
Airfoil
Blade Twist
Rotor Blade and Hub Definitions
Airflow and Reactions in the Rotor System
Rotor Blade Angles
Hovering Flight
Translating Tendency or Drift
Pendular Action
Coning
Coriolis Effect (Law of Conservation of Angular
Momentum)
Ground Effect
Gyroscopic Precession
Forward Flight
Translational Lift
Translational Thrust
Induced Flow
Transverse Flow Effect
Dissymmetry of Lift
Hover
Translational Flight
Sideward, Rearward, and Turning Flight
Autorotation
Entry
Steady-State Descent
Deceleration
Instructor Tips
Chapter Summary
Chapter 4 Helicopter Flight Controls
Introduction
Collective Pitch Control
Throttle Control
Cyclic Pitch Control
Antitorque Control
Practice
Instructor Tips
Chapter Summary
Chapter 5 Helicopter Components, Sections, and Systems
Introduction
Airframe Design
Rotor Blade Design
Powerplant Design
Antitorque System Design
Landing Gear System Design
Airframe
Aluminum
Advantages
Disadvantages
Composite Construction
Advantages
Disadvantages
Fuselage
Main Rotor System
Rigid Rotor System
Semirigid Rotor System
Fully Articulated Rotor System
Bearingless Rotor System
Tandem Rotor
Coaxial Rotor System
Swashplate Assembly
Antitorque Systems
Tail Rotor
Other Types of Antitorque System
Engines
Reciprocating Engine (Piston)
Turbine Engine
Compressor
Combustion Chamber
Turbine
Transmission System
Main Rotor Transmission
Antitorque Drive System
Clutch
Freewheeling Unit
Fuel System
Engines
Reciprocating Engines
Carburetor
Carburetor Ice
Fuel Injection
Electrical Systems
Hydraulics
Hydraulic System Components
Hydraulic System Failure
Stability Augmentation Systems (SAS)
Autopilot
Environmental Systems (Heating/Cooling)
Anti-Icing Systems
Engine Anti-Ice
Carburetor Icing
Preflight and Deicing

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